A beginner’s guide to circuitboards

If you know anything about electronics you will probably be aware of the existence of the printed circuit board, or PCB. You may be less aware of what a PCB actually is and how they are constructed. Of course, there are experts in PCB assembly who you can turn to for help with this type of project but you may also find it useful to have some awareness yourself.

We are going to take a look at what a PCB is. We are also going to give you an overview of the structure of a PCB and explain some of the terminology you might hear, in relation to PCBs.

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What is a PCB?

You may also hear the term printed wiring board used to describe a PCB. Prior to the development of the PCB the process of developing circuits could be time consuming as wiring was done point to point. This meant that there were often wiring failures and that short circuits were common as the wiring aged.

The development of the PCB resulted from the need for a more cost effective and efficient manufacturing system for electronic consumer goods. A PCB is a board that is made up from lines and pads which are used to connect different points. You could liken a PCB to a very thin sandwich which consists of different layers which are then melded together with the use of heat and adhesive to make one object.

At the core of a PCB is usually fibreglass which adds rigidity to the board. Other materials can be used for this core but they are not as durable. The next layer of a PCB consists of a thin layer of copper. In most PCBs the weight of this copper is one ounce per square foot. On top of the layer of copper is a layer of soldermask. The layer exists to insulate the copper and tends to give the PCB its colour.

On top of the soldermask is a layer of silkscreen on which letters and numbers are placed. This layer exists to provide information that makes it easier to construct a PCB. It’s a way of helping people to understand a PCB in greater detail.

Terminology that is associated with a PCB

If you read about a PCB, or take a look at construction instructions, you will probably see some terms used. We have put together a list of the most common terminology.

Annular ring – a copper ring around a through hole.

Design rule check (DRC) – A software check that makes sure your PCB design does not have any errors.

Drill hit – The different locations on a PCB design where a hole should be drilled.

Pad – A piece of metal on a PCB to which a component of the board is soldered.

Panel – A collection of smaller boards which are manufactured together and then separated before use.

These are just some of the terms you will become familiar with if you are constructing a PCB. If you have difficulty with the terms, or need help with your PCB construction you should speak to an expert to seek some assistance.

Toshiba Portege X20W 2-in-1 Laptop With 16-Hour Battery Life Launched at CES 2017

At CES 2017, Japanese consumer electronics giant Toshiba expanded its Portege laptop portfolio to launch a 2-in-1 offering – Portege X20W – one of several shown off at CES already. The pricing details of the 2-in-1 have not been announced yet.

Toshiba Portege X20W 2-in-1 Laptop With 16-Hour Battery Life Launched at CES 2017The Toshiba Portege X20W will go on sale in Slate Grey soon via the Microsoft online store in the US, while the Onyx Blue model will be made available through the Toshiba website before the month end, notes The Verge.

The Portege X20W convertible’s main highlight is touted to be its 16-hour battery life. It is 15.4mm thin and weighs less than 1.13kg. The laptop has a 360-degree hinge that lets you use it in four different viewing modes – Laptop, Tablet, Tabletop, Presentation, and Audience. It has two IR cameras that support Windows Hello facial recognition.

toshiba portege x20w angles flat toshiba

As for the specifications, the Windows 10 Pro-based Toshiba Portege X20W sports a 12.5-inch full-HD (1920×1080 pixels) multi-touch wide angle display with Corning Gorilla Glass 4 protection. It is powered by a seventh generation Intel Core processor, however, no RAM details have been provided yet.

Ports on board include one USB Type-C port, one USB 3.0 port, Thunderbolt 3 port, and a 3.5mm audio jack. The Toshiba Portege X20W comes with a TruPen, which uses Wacom Feel technology and “can detect 2,048 levels of pressure, perfect for taking notes, drawing on webpages in Microsoft Edge and using Windows Ink,” Microsoft said on its blog.

toshiba portege x20w angles blah toshiba

The Toshiba Portege X20W sports Harman Kardon stereo speakers that are said to adapt to the rotational view of the display, and it also comes with DTS sound software. The laptop is compatible with the company’s Toshiba WiGig Dock and Toshiba Thunderbolt 3 Dock, which will be available later this quarter.

Different Ways to Store Data

A business by its very nature generates records. More and more businesses are trying to go paperless, which means these records are stored like electronic data. Storing this data has to be done properly, and a lot of factors will determine which one is best. Security, size, availability, content, and so on are all factors that matter.

How to Store Data

Some companies are dedicated solely to the storage of data, and their recovery in some cases. Businesses like http://www.datastoragecorp.com/ibm-iseries-solutions/, for instance. Some of the options they offer include virtual backups, offsite storage, networked data storage, on site disc storage, and so on.

Information Storage Strategies

There are different storage strategies that you could use:

  1. Storing everything solely on a single desktop machine. This means that, so long as the machine is secure, the data is secure as well. However, it also has a single point of failure. If the drive fails, or if the machine is hacked, all the information is compromised. This is not suitable for businesses, therefore.
  2. Removable media backups, with the storage kept on site. This was long very popular, with tapes being used and changed at the end of each day. That way, a copy of all the data of the previous day would always be available. Security was mainly down to where the data was stored. Unfortunately, the discs can easily become damaged, which means the potential for data to be completely lost exists.
  3. Offsite physical store, which is how most paper records are still being stored today. It can also be done digitally, however, with transfers being made to things such as SD cards or other such devices. These devices are then stored in a secured location offsite. Recovery can be quite lengthy in these cases, and security is down to how secure the location in which the tools are stored are.
  4. Virtual storage, also known as the ‘cloud’, which is the most modern form of storage. Data should be encrypted and other security techniques also exist. Only those with the right credentials should be able to access the data thanks to the security protocols so that, if the cloud is breached, the information becomes meaningless.

So which type of storage should you use? Most businesses use a combination of all four, although the second option is mainly phased out. There are a couple of things you need to think about, such as how important it is that you are able to access the data at specific times, or particularly quickly. If you also have physical data, you need to consider how you will manage that as well.

The biggest issue is security. With almost all data now being kept online in some way or another, including very sensitive information such as personal and financial records, it is vital that whatever storage solution you use cannot be accessed by the wrong people. This is something you need to research properly before coming to a decision.

AMD broadcasts new Radeon RX 480: VR-equipped, at a budget rate

After months of hypothesis, AMD eventually revealed its very own next-technology GPU at Computex 2016 this week. the new RX 480 is a midrange card that AMD claims will deliver dramatic performance enhancements in VR and 3-d gaming. It’s all a part of AMD’s overall approach to lessen the fee of buying into the VR surroundings, even as improving their competitive positioning in opposition to Nvidia’s midrange products.


The RX 480, with a view to deliver on June 29, is a 14nm GPU built at GlobalFoundries. It’s a fourth-generation GCN card based totally at the Polaris 10 architecture. The RX480 will % 2,304 GCN cores, which fits out to 36 compute units. Its boost clock is above 1.08GHz and it’s backed by way of a 256-bit reminiscence bus and either 4GB or 8GB of GDDR5 relying at the SKU. Board energy is 150W and the release fee is $199. Anandtech estimates a clock variety between 1.08GHz and 1.3GHz to obtain AMD’s stated >5TFLOPS metric.


The R9 380X is the hardest opposition AMD has on the $199 rate point (maximum of the GPUs in this bracket are R9 380s, however PowerColor has an R9 380X priced at $199). The R9 380X is a 2048:one hundred twenty:32 layout (cores, texture gadgets, and ROPS respectively) sponsored up by 182GB/s of memory bandwidth. We don’t understand how many TMUs or ROPS the RX 480 can have, however reminiscence bandwidth ought to be an awful lot higher, at 256GB/s (the RX 480 has 8Gbps GDDR5 memory and a 256-bit reminiscence bus).


One persistent rumor we’ve heard is that AMD’s Polaris desktop GPUs could in shape or beat the R9 390’s performance at kind of half of the TDP. That appears pretty practicable based totally on the RX 480’s middle matter (2,304 as opposed to 2,560 on the R9 390), probable higher clock pace, improved performance, and reminiscence compression enhancements that have been delivered in GCN 1.2 and possibly in addition stepped forward with Polaris’ fourth-technology GCN structure. common performance will possibly beat the R9 390 and technique the R9 390X, but at a much decrease charge (the most inexpensive R9 390X is currently $299 at Newegg) and hugely higher strength consumption.

There are a few questions about total GPU efficiency for the reason that RX 450 is rated for 150W, however doesn’t appear to provide as a good deal overall performance as the GTX 1070, which additionally incorporates a 150W TDP — but a board’s TDP rating isn’t constantly an correct instance of its average energy consumption. traditionally, AMD’s TDP scores have tended to consult the maximum strength a design should draw in preference to a real-international metric of how much energy they generally consume. We’ll should wait and test the GPU earlier than we can say lots approximately its electricity performance compared to different AMD GPUs or Nvidia merchandise.

Like Nvidia, AMD is closely talking up Polaris’ overall performance enhancements in VR, although the agency hasn’t unveiled information in this subject matter but. AMD claims that its new $200 GPU can suit the performance of $500 GPUs from the preceding generations in VR, and the agency’s aggressive pricing should deliver it a completely strong foothold in the midrange marketplace. presently, Nvidia’s $199 GPU will be the GTX 960. Anandtech’s Bench lets in us to examine exclusive GPUs in opposition to every other, and whilst there’s no access for the R9 290 in last years’ database, we can compare the R9 390 against the GTX 960:


that is only a sample from the whole assessment; you may view the two cards head-to-head by clicking the link above. If AMD can supply R9 390 performance in a $199 GPU, it’s going to have an massive aspect over the GTX 960. manifestly Nvidia can have a GTX 1060 at some point, however AMD wants to stake out a robust role in this space, and it looks like they’ve were given a potent GPU to do it with.

We’ll have extra info and real overall performance numbers on July 29. live tuned.

How to Deal with a Computer Virus

Everybody is always scared of getting a virus on their computer. A virus, essentially, is an infection that affects any or all parts of the computer. It can be reasonably benign, in as such that it only forces advertisements on you (adWare), or it can be malicious to try and steal your information (SpyWare). It is even possible for it to create a network in order to attack other computers.More over you can also get your deleted files form this software recover deleted files

Types of Viruses

A number of viruses have been classified:

  • Trojan horses, which tend to come through email and, if opened, scans your computer and then sends the information it was looking for to a hacker.
  • Macro virus, which can damage data that is found on your hard drive.
  • Worms, which self-replicate and spread to other computers and files in order to create damage.
  • Rootkit viruses, which covers your computer’s Registry, hiding what another virus is doing.
  • Boot-sector viruses, which don’t really exist anymore, as they were usually found on old fashioned floppy disks.
  • Logic bombs, which are designed to overwhelm systems.
  • Memory resident viruses, which h ides in your RAM to interrupt certain operations.
  • Multipartite viruses, which spread in a range of different ways at the same time.


How Do You Get a Virus?

Three options exist:

  1. Email, whereby you open a file that contains a virus after it is sent to you.
  2. Internet, because you download a file that contains a virus.
  3. Peripheral devices, like floppy disks, external drives, and so on.

Symptoms to Look out for

If you think you may have a virus, you should look out for:

  • Unusual activity, like slow running or crashing programs.
  • Unexpected messages.
  • Programs starting on their own.
  • A firewall informing you that something is trying to connect to the internet.
  • Your friends receiving infected emails from you.
  • Sudden system errors.
  • Your operating system not starting.
  • Damage to folders and files.
  • Hard disk is being accessed without you doing anything.
  • Web browsers behaving strangely.
  • Advertisements popping up.
  • .exe files with existing folder names appearing.
  • Your internet security software telling you that you have a virus.
  • Losing administrator rights.

What You Can Do

If you suspect you have a virus:

  1. Install or update an antivirus program.
  2. Disconnect from your LAN and internet.
  3. Start your operating system in Safe Mode.
  4. Run a virus scanner.
  5. Contact your internet security software provider for help.
  6. Format your disk and re-install your operating system.

If, after doing all of this, there still seems to be a problem, you will need to go to a computer repair shop. They may be able to identify a virus that you were not able to find. Alternatively, it is possible that you actually have a hardware problem rather than a virus. The most important thing, however, is that you take action to prevent infections from happening in the first place. Make sure you always have a good quality, fit for purpose, fully up to date virus scanner on your computer,or you can get your files form this software data recovery software

7 Extreme Tips to Keep Your Computer Virus-Free

Viruses and malware are the major threats to any PC user. Mysterious messages that prompt on the screen and slow down of the performance of your computer are but a few of the threats that computer users face. There can be some serious problems too, which include hacking of sensitive data. This can even lead the hackers to make use of your banking details and other confidential information. Do not worry, if you want to ensure that your computer is virus free then try these 7 excellent tips to keep your computer and data safe and secure.

  1. Install an Antivirus Software

Installing the best antivirus is a sure way to protect your computer from viruses and malware.. But keep in mind that any antivirus cannot help your computer to stay safe unless it is regularly updated. New viruses appear each day, so using the best and most reputable software to fight against viruses is essential. A few people might install more than one antivirus, but this will not offer any advantages, and can even end up doing more harm than good. Likewise, using a cheap and old version of an antivirus software will also produce less than satisfactory results.

  1. Use a Firewall

When any harmful worms or hackers try to connect to your computer, the firewall stops these attempts. No malicious program or malware can be downloaded to your computer when you make use of a reliable firewall.

  1. Use the Pop-up Blocker

When you are surfing online, lots of ads pop up on the side of your screen. These are most of the times irrelevant and annoying. What is more threatening is the fact that these ads contain malicious codes. Using a pop-up blocker can help you stop seeing these pop-ups. Each browser has its own pop-up blocking feature, and you can turn it on.

  1. Activate the User Account Control

Most of the malicious software and codes change the administrator settings. When the administrator level permission is required to change a few settings, you will receive notifications. This is an easy way to know if some illegal site or software tries to penetrate your computer to bring down the performance or hack your data.

  1. Use a Spyware and Malware detector

Now you have already installed an antivirus software and are updating it frequently. By installing spyware and malware-fightingsoftware, you improve the security of your computer even further. Added security with antispyware and antimalware is never a problem.

  1. Scanning while Downloading

Most of the times, the threats come from the email attachments, or from the programs, software, videos and other sources you download online. Every time you download email attachments or any other source, you need to scan for potential threats. It is also essential that you stay off from downloading stuff from the sites that are not trusted or that contain illegal content.

  1. Use your Common Sense

Yes, this will definitely come handy, but is often given the least importance. Do not click on anything before you read and understand what it is. For example, if you are going to install some software that would boost the speed of your computer incredibly, wait! This could be spam.If you are looking for pirated software and keys for such software, then you are practically inviting virusesto your computer. Furthermore, pop-ups that say that your system has loads of viruses are always fake. When you use disks and USBs from others, make it a point to scan them to check the potential threats. If you receive anemail from untrusted sources, do not click it. Anything that is not reliable at the first sight should never be clicked or opened.

Your computer is a source of data that is confidential and private. Protecting it from getting lost or landing into the hands of hackers is crucial. These 7 tips help you achieve this goal of protecting your computer and the data.if you get data loss by virus , you can use the data recovery software




Bypass Windows 10 Password

Just like the previous versions, Windows 10 has its share of standout features, and a few niggles here and there. Generally speaking, the fancy interface and friendly using make it a nice version. But this is not the whole story, you may be frustrated by the requirement to enter your password to login every time you power up. What if you are sick of bypassing Windows 10 password?

Till now I can only see two ways to deal with the bypassing Windows 10 password. The first one is the manual operation, which I will guide you step by step later, to set the function in your computer so to help you bypass the Win 10 password. The second one, which will be more convenient and effective, it to use some advanced software.


Solution One

A small reminder here is that you need to remember your Windows password, and you have a basic understanding on Windows 10 operation.

First you need to sign in Windows 10 with local account or Microsoft account. In the search box on the task-bar, type settings and select Settings > Accounts, then select Sign-in options in Accounts window and click Change button under Password.

Then you can try to remove Windows 10 user password. If your sign-in account is local user account, type current local user account password and click Next. Don’t type anything in New Password and Reenter Password, Password hint box. Click Next and Finish.

 Solution Two

However, a very often case is that people usually want to bypass the password because they forget it. In that case, it may very hard for us to use settings in our computer to bypass the password. Here we would recommend you try SmartKey Windows Password Recovery Standard. It is one of the most powerful password recovery/resetting/bypassing software which can effectively help you bypass your Windows 10 password. Just through three easy steps, you can either get your password back or bypass it. And it required you little knowledge of the Windows 10 operation.

Its most salient characteristic is the 100% recovery rate, which has been welcomed by thousands of Windows 10 users. Windows password recovery process will be finished easily and quickly with no data loss or file damage at all with the least money & time.

Beside, you can feel free to choose change the password, or remove the password, or even create a new account. Solve your password problems by yourself in minutes with the software.

What about Other Functions?

Besides helping you bypass the password in your Windows 10, Windows Password Key also

  • Lend PC to others and the admin password was accidentally changed.
  • Forgot Windows 8.1 login password and there is no reset disk.
  • Lost admin password for Windows PC and had no other admin account to login.
  • Unfortunately forgot user password you just changed.
  • Set a Microsoft account but lost password for it.

Top 5 All-in-One Desktop Computers for 2016

Dell XPS 27 Touch

The Dell XPS 27 Touch is a superbly stylish all-in-one desktop PC that not only offers powerful performance and a stunning 27-inch high resolution touchscreen display for hassle-free navigation, but at only 28.2 lbs it is very light and easy to lift. You can also tilt the screen back and adjust the height for comfortable usage. Boasting a fourth generation Intel Core i5 4460S processor, programs run very well and it is perfect for gaming. With top quality speakers, a large storage capacity and many other different features, this computer is set to take 2016 by storm.

Apple iMac

This extraordinary all-in-one desktop computer features an ultra-slim design and the screen comes in two different sizes, 21.5-inch and 27-inch. You can also choose from one of three different Intel Core processors depending on your individual requirements. Although the Apple iMac does not feature a touchscreen, the 1920×1080-pixel high resolution LED backlit display is simply stunning. This sleek computer will perfectly compliment any workspace and with enough power to run many programs at once, it is little wonder why Apple has gained such an excellent reputation as the manufacturer of one of the best computers on the market.

Lenovo A740

With an eye-catching design that will make any workspace look stylish, the Lenovo A740 is a great choice when choosing your next all-in-one desktop computer. Its powerful fourth generation Intel Core i7 4558U processor makes this PC extremely responsive and paired up with fibre broadband internet, surfing the internet could not be easier or more enjoyable. As all of the ports and card readers are on the base of the computer, wires and cords are kept well out of the way and makes the overall appearance of this PC look neat and organised. With loud speakers, a webcam and a 27-inch 2560×1440-pixel high resolution touchscreen display, it is easy to see why this computer is among the best on the market.

HP Sprout

The HP Sprout boasts interesting features that will make it stand out from the other all-in-one desktop computers available in 2016. As well as the ability to scan and produce both 2D and 3D objects, it has a 23-inch projected touchscreen that is very easy to interact with. Aside from these innovative features, this PC also offers a high resolution display screen and a 3.2 Ghz Intel Core i7 processor, making it a perfect choice for any home. Although this PC is quite large and requires more desk space than most other computers, it does have a huge selection of applications and programs to chose from.

Acer Aspire U5

If style is a priority, you can not go wrong with the stunning Acer Aspire U5. With a 23-inch edge-to-edge glass touchscreen display boasting a high resolution of 1920×1080-pixels, this fantastic all-in-one desktop computer would look great anywhere. An added feature is the coating on the screen that is highly resistant to fingerprints, thereby keeping its sheen at all times. Other than the aesthetics, this PC also has a fourth generation Intel Core i5 4210M processor for stunning graphics and astounding speed.

How to Create A Tutorial Video on Your Desktop Easily?

I have been making many tutorial videos for my students as well as my YouTube channel from my desktop. Most of those videos are of me speaking into the microphone connected to my PC or computer while I am recording the tutorial live.

Many people ask me how I record these videos and they think I use some sort of hidden trick or something. They ask me which software I use and they think it comes bundled with Windows by default or your Mac for that matter.

I have finally decided to reveal how to make how to video and I am also going to name the software that I use in order to make those videos. Not only that but I will also tell you how to download, install and use the software, so that you can directly get started with using the software and trust me, it is very easy.

How to make how to videos?

So here it is. The software that I use to make video tutorials is called Movavi Screen Capture Studio and it is a very good software when it comes to screen recording. You can not only record the screen, but you can also record audio from your system or from your microphone.

You can also edit the videos using the same software so it’s a great software overall.

How to download & Install this tool?

Downloading and installing this is very easy as you just have to follow the following steps.

  • Go to this page and download the software by clicking on that download button.
  • After the download is complete, just double click the downloaded file and the setup will start.
  • Choose the appropriate options in the setup and proceed.
  • The setup will take around 1-2 minutes to complete.

How to use Movavi Screen Capture Studio?

Using this software is just as easy as installing it. After installing the software, just start the program and you will see a window similar to the image below. Follow the steps after that.


  • You can see that you can record video from your webcam as well. You can do that if you need to but you can also capture your screen.


  • On the screen you will have options to set the capture area resolution and you can also choose the audio source which can be your microphone or system audio or both at the same time.
  • As soon as you click that REC button, the software will start recording the desktop screen and you can finish the recording.

More features!

After the recording is complete, you can also go ahead and edit the videos using  the same software. When it comes to recording the video, you will be able to record the videos at 60fps which will make the videos buttery smooth and they will be a pleasure to look at.

The video editor along with the capture studio is like cherry on top of the cake as it provides more functionality and you do not need any extra software at all.

This is a great software to use when it comes to recording tutorials that you can use.